COP21达成《巴黎协定》:这是什么意思?

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COP21达成《巴黎协定》:这是什么意思?

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    联合国气候会议(COP21)上周六结束,历史性的首映式落幕,共有196个国家达成了解决全球变暖的协议。在上一个有关气候变化的国际条约《京都议定书》签署十八年之后,《巴黎协定》才获得不到40个发达国家的批准。在代表们未能在哥本哈根的COP15会议上达成协议后的六年,这项国际协议是一个充满希望的令人鼓舞的宣布。 《巴黎协定》将于其前身《京都议定书》于2020年开始生效。

    在该协议中,各国政府已承诺削减温室气体排放,以将变暖限制在相对于工业化前水平的2摄氏度以下,并“努力”将变暖限制在1.5摄氏度,直至本世纪末。该目标旨在改进当前的估计,即与工业化前的水平相比,全球温室气体排放量将平均增加3度。文本的目标是在本世纪下半叶实现净零排放。

    该协议还规定了每五年一次的审查,报告和监督的过程,旨在跟踪进展情况并确保透明度,从而各国将每五年提交新的目标或国家自主贡献计划(INDC),这不比它们的野心那么大以前的气候计划。

    将采用一种筹资机制,发展中国家可以从中获得财政支持以适应新的承诺。发达国家同意从2020年开始每年筹集1000亿美元,并在2025年建立新的基准。损失和损害准备金的目的是帮助脆弱国家获得保险和其他支持以减少其因气候压力而带来的金融风险,但不提供自动补偿。

    对此气候协定的怀疑者批评针对气候变化的紧迫性而设定的目标不足,指出只有零净需求是足够的。此外,进一步削减排放量对于达成协议的2C目标至关重要,因为180多个国家在巴黎峰会前夕所作的承诺(INDC)仅将全球变暖限制在2.7C至3C之间。

    批评更多的是指在不遵守协定的情况下没有实际的制裁。但是,有人反对《京都议定书》,认为该协议更多地侧重于透明义务,这将引起舆论和同伴压力。 “姓名与耻辱”规则有望起到制裁作用,并鼓励各国政府信守诺言。

    最后,尽管人们对设定的实际目标是否足够,对发展中国家的支持以及缺乏有约束力的制裁意见不一;似乎已经达成共识,说有许多国家参与并有明确目标,达成这一协议是向前迈出的关键一步,将为企业和投资者建立并向其发出良好信号的良好基础。将世界带向低碳经济的方向。

    下一步:为使该协议生效,该协议应自4月22日起由至少占世界排放量55%的55个国家批准,接受或批准。

    阅读协议:

    资料来源

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